Understanding Refractory API 936 Reading II

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Understanding Refractory API 936 Reading II
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  • slide 1: Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Understanding REFRACTORY For API936 Personnel Certification Examination Reading 2- The ASTMs’ My Pre-exam Self Study Notes 20th September 2015
  • slide 2: Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Refractory for Petrochemicals
  • slide 3: Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Refractory for Petrochemicals
  • slide 4: Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Refractory for Petrochemicals
  • slide 5: Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang Refractory for Petrochemicals
  • slide 6: Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang
  • slide 7: Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang The Magical Book of Acoustic Emission
  • slide 8: Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang
  • slide 9: BODY OF KNOWLEDGE FOR API936 REFRACTORY PERSONNEL CERTIFICATION EXAMINATION API certified 936 refractory personnel must have knowledge of installation inspection testing and repair of refractory linings. The API 936 Personnel Certification Examination is designed to identify applicants possessing the required knowledge. The examination consists of 75 multiple-choice questions and runs for 4 hours no reference information is permitted on the exam. The examination focuses on the content of API STD 936 and other referenced publications. Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang
  • slide 10: REFERENCE PUBLICATIONS: A. API Publications:  API Standard 936 3rd Edition Nov 2008 - Refractory Installation Quality Control Guidelines - Inspection and Testing Monolithic Refractory Linings and Materials. B. ACI American Concrete Institute Publications:  547R87 - State of the art report: Refractory Concrete  547.1R89 - State of the art report: Refractory plastic and Ramming Mixes C. ASTM Publications:  C113-02 - Standard Test Method for Reheat Change of Refractory Brick  C133-97 - Standard Test Methods for Cold Crushing Strength and Modulus of Rupture of Refractories  C181-09 - Standard Test Method for Workability Index of Fireclay and High Alumina Plastic Refractories  C704-01 - Standard Test Method for Abrasion Resistance of Refractory Materials at Room Temperatures Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang
  • slide 11: Fion Zhang at Shanghai 20th September 2015 Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang
  • slide 12: Video Time- shotcrete refractory Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang ■ https://www.youtube.com/watchvs81LE7XXZ4AlistPLey7s_Oct4OK9-7tMIx5cp9-RjSdetDTq
  • slide 13: Reading II Content  Study note One: ASTM C113-02 Standard Test Method for Reheat Change of Refractory Brick  Study note Two: ASTM C133-97 Standard Test Methods for Cold Crushing Strength and Modulus of Rupture of Refractories  Study note Three:  Study note Four: Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang
  • slide 14: Study Note 1: ASTM C113-02 Standard Test Method for Reheat Change of Refractory Brick Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang http://cedarcanyontextiles.com/win-bigin-our-shape-shifter-challenge/bigstock-number-icons-4/
  • slide 15: 1. Scope 1.1 This test method covers the determination of the permanent linear change of refractory brick when heated under prescribed conditions. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. NOTE 1- Test methods incorporating additional provisions pertinent to specific refractory materials are given in the following Test Methods: C 179 C 210 and C 605. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns if any associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang
  • slide 16: 2. Referenced Documents 2.1 ASTM Standards:  C 134 Test Methods for Size Dimensional Measurements and Bulk Density of Refractory Brick and Insulating Firebrick  C 179 Test Method for Drying and Firing Linear Change of Refractory Plastic and Ramming Mix Specimens  C 210 Test Method for Reheat Change of Insulating Firebrick  C 605 Test Method for Reheat Change of Fireclay Nozzles and Sleeves  E 230 Temperature-Electromotive Force EMF Tables for Standardized Thermocouples Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang
  • slide 17: 3. Significance and Use 3.1 Refractory brick and shapes of different compositions exhibit unique permanent linear changes after heating or reheating. This test method provides a standard procedure for heating various classes of refractories with appropriate heating schedules. 3.2 Linear reheat changes obtained by this test method are suitable for use in research and development also often used to establish written specifications between producers and consumers. 3.3 Care should be exercised in selecting samples that are representative of the product being tested and that the schedule selected is appropriate to the product. Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang
  • slide 18: 4. Apparatus 4.1 Kiln of such design that the specified heating schedule and atmosphere can be maintained throughout the heating zone. 4.2 Linear Measuring Device capable of being read to 0.02 in. 0.5 mm over a span of 10 in. 254 mm. 1 A hook-rule as specified in Test Methods C 134 2 a vernier caliper or 3 a dial gage device may be used. 4.3 Gas Sampling and Analysis Equipment capable of determining the 1 percent free oxygen and 2 total combustibles in the atmosphere of the test chamber. Keywords: Hook rule vernier caliper dial gage free O2 total combustible. Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang
  • slide 19: Captain Hook- Once Upon a Time Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang
  • slide 20: Hook rule Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang
  • slide 21: Captain Hook- Once upon a time Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang
  • slide 22: Vernier Caliper Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang
  • slide 23: Vernier Caliper- Digital Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang
  • slide 24: Dial Gage Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang
  • slide 25: 5. Test Specimens 5.1 For each test use three rectangular specimens measuring 9 by 4½ by 2½ or 3 in. 228mm x 114mm x 64mm or 76mm in size or if smaller shapes approaching these dimensions as closely as possible. These may be commercial brick of the specified size or test pieces cut out of larger shapes. 5.2 Using ceramic paint or crayon label each specimen and make a reference mark at each end on the center line of a broad face to indicate the exact position where the measurement is made. Measure the length on each of the three test specimens to the nearest 0.02 in. 0.5 mm. Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang 9” 4½” 3 or 2½” + +
  • slide 26: nearest 0.02 in. 0.5 mm. Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang 9” 4½” 3 or 2½” + +
  • slide 27: 6. Procedure 6.1 Placing Specimens in Kiln- Place the test specimens in the kiln so that each rests edgewise that is on a 9 by 2½ or 3in. 228 by 64 or 76-mm face and set only one course high. Place each specimen upon the corresponding face of a supporting brick that is from the same lot as the test specimen or at least of equal refractoriness. Place between the test specimen and the supporting brick a layer of suitable refractory material that is non- reactive under the test conditions and passing an ASTM No. 16 1.18-mm sieve equivalent to a 14-mesh Tyler Standard Series and retained on an ASTM No. 40 425- μm sieve equivalent to a 35-mesh Tyler Standard Series. Place each specimen so that it is not less than 1½ in. 38 mm from other test specimens or from the furnace wall. Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang ≥1½ in passing an ASTM No.16 Retain ASTM No.40 sieves
  • slide 28: ASTM Sieve Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang
  • slide 29: ASTM Sieve Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang
  • slide 30: 6.2 Temperature Measurement- Measure the temperature within the kiln by means of an appropriate calibrated thermocouple. Refer to E 230 Tables 1 and 2 for the tolerances and upper temperature limits for use of various thermocouples. At higher temperatures the thermocouple may be withdrawn and a calibrated optical or radiation pyrometer can be used. Place the hot junction of the thermocouple or sight the pyrometer so as to register the temperature of the test specimens. Make temperature readings at intervals not greater than 15 min. Check the kiln periodically by thermocouples pyrometers or pyrometric cones to ensure that temperatures over the hearth do not differ by more than 25 °F 14 °C or one-half cone . Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang T o T 123.. ∆T T o -T 123 ≤ 25 °F
  • slide 31: 6.3 Test Atmosphere- At all temperatures above 1470 °F800 °C the furnace atmosphere shall contain a minimum of 0.5 oxygen and 0 combustibles. Take gas-analysis samples from the furnace chamber proper. 6.4 Test Temperature Schedule- Operate the kiln so as to conform to the appropriate heating schedule for the class of refractory being tested as shown in Table 1. Adjust the firing during the hold period so that the temperatures will average the specified temperature within 5 °F 3 °C. After completion of the heating schedule cool the specimens in the closed kiln to below 800 °F 425 °C before removing. 6.5 Measuring Fired Specimens- Remeasure the test specimens at room temperature in accordance with 4.2 after rubbing the ends with an abrasive block to remove small blisters if necessary. Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang
  • slide 32: 7. Calculation and Report 7.1 Calculate the percentage linear change based upon the original length of each specimen. Report the average of the three individual values as the reheat change in the test. Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang specimen.
  • slide 33: 8. Precision and Bias 8.1 Interlaboratory Test Data- An interlaboratory roundrobin test was conducted between eight laboratories at three different reheat temperatures. 8.1.1 In the interlaboratory study four types of brick were tested three samples each a total of seven sets at each laboratory. 8.1.2 Heating schedules brick types tested averages of all determinations and precisions are given in Table 2. 8.2 Precision- For the components of variation given in Table 2 a test result composed of three samples should be considered significantly different at a confidence level of 95 if the repeatability or reproducibility exceeds the precision data given in Table 2. 8.3 Bias- No justifiable statement on bias is possible since the true physical properties of refractories cannot be established by an acceptable reference material. Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang
  • slide 34: 9. Keywords 9.1 heating schedule refractory brick reheat change temperature measurements test atmosphere Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang
  • slide 35: TABLE 1 Heating Schedule for Reheat of Various Types of Refractories Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang
  • slide 36: TABLE 2 Precision of Interlaboratory Test Results Relative precision does not apply since values pass through the point of zero. NOTE- Relative precision does not apply since values pass through the point of zero. Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang
  • slide 37: Corundum Mullite Castable High Strength Wear-Resistant Corundum Mullite Refractory Castable has high crushing strength good high temperature volume stability and thermal shock stability excellent wear resistance and erosion resistance. It is can be used in lining of large power station boiler and other lining of high temperature furnace . Applications: 1. Steel furnaces 2. Iron making furnaces 3. Glass kiln 4. Ceramic tunnel kiln 5. Cement kiln Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang http://castable.cc/
  • slide 38: Corundum Mullite Castable Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang http://castable.cc/
  • slide 39: Study Note 2: ASTM C133-97 Standard Test Methods for Cold Crushing Strength and Modulus of Rupture of Refractories Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang http://cedarcanyontextiles.com/win-bigin-our-shape-shifter-challenge/bigstock-number-icons-4/
  • slide 40: 1. Scope 1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the cold crushing strength and the modulus of rupture MOR of dried or fired refractory shapes of all types. 1.2 The test methods appear in the following sections: Test Method Sections ■ Cold Crushing Strength 4 to 9 ■ Modulus of Rupture 10 to 15 1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns if any associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang
  • slide 41: 2. Referenced Documents 2.1 ASTM Standards: • C 862 Practice for Preparing Refractory Concrete Specimens by Casting • C 1054 Practice for Pressing and Drying Refractory Plastic and Ramming Mix Specimens • E 4 Practices for Force Verification of Testing Machines3 Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang
  • slide 42: 3. Significance and Use 3.1 The cold strength of a refractory material is an indication of its suitability for use in refractory construction. It is not a measure of performance at elevated temperatures. 3.2 These test methods are for determining the room temperature flexural strength in 3-point bending cold modulus of rupture or compressive strength cold crushing strength or both for all refractory products. 3.3 Considerable care must be used to compare the results of different determinations of the cold crushing strength or modulus of rupture. The specimen size and shape the nature of the specimen faces that is as- formed sawed or ground the orientation of those faces during testing the loading geometry and the rate of load application may all significantly affect the numerical results obtained. Comparisons of the results between different determinations should not be made if one or more of these parameters differ between the two determinations. Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang
  • slide 43: Factors Affecting Test Results 1. The specimen size and shape 2. the nature of the specimen faces that is as- formed sawed or ground 3. the orientation of those faces during testing 4. the loading geometry and the 5. rate of load application 6. The relative ratio of the largest grain size to the smallest specimen dimension may all significantly affect the numerical results obtained. Comparisons of the results between different determinations should not be made if one or more of these parameters differ between the two determinations. Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang
  • slide 44: 3.4 The relative ratio of the largest grain size to the smallest specimen dimension may significantly affect the numerical results. For example smaller cut specimens containing large grains may present different results than the bricks from which they were cut. Under no circumstances should 6” by 1” by 1in. 152mm by 25mm by 25mm specimens be prepared and tested for materials containing grains with a maximum grain dimension exceeding 0.25 in. 6.4 mm. 3.5 This test method is useful for research and development engineering application and design manufacturing process control and for developing purchasing specifications. Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang 1” x 1” x 6”
  • slide 45: OLD CRUSHING STRENGTH 4. Apparatus 4.1 Testing Machine- Any form of standard mechanical or hydraulic compression testing machine conforming to the requirements of Practices E 4 may be used. NOTE 1- For low-strength materials such as insulating bricks or castables a sensitivity of 20 lbf 67 kN or less is required. The use of a hydraulic testing machine is also preferred over the mechanical type for these materials. 4.2 Spherical Bearing Block- The plane surface of the spherical bearing block see Fig. 1 shall have an area which is equal to or greater than the cross section of the test specimen. Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang
  • slide 46: FIG. 1 Recommended Design for Crushing Test Assembly Including Bearing Block Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang
  • slide 47: 5. Test Specimens 5.1 Brick and Shapes bulk density greater than 100 lb/ft 3 1.60 g/cm 3 - The test specimens shall be 2 in. 51mm cubes or cylinders 2 in. in diameter by 2 in. 51 x 51mm high. The height should be parallel to the original direction of pressing of the brick or shape. In the case of special shapes only one specimen shall be cut from a single shape and as many of the original surfaces as possible shall be preserved. In preparing specimens from irregular or large refractory shapes any method involving the use of abrasives such as a high speed abrasion wheel core drill or rubbing bed that will produce a specimen with approximately plane and parallel sides without weakening the structure of the specimen may be used. Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang 2inx 2inx 2in
  • slide 48: Keywords:  The height should be parallel to the original direction of pressing of the brick or shape.  In the case of special shapes only one specimen shall be cut from a single shape and as many of the original surfaces as possible shall be preserved. Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang 2inx 2inx 2in 2in Ф2in
  • slide 49: 5.2 Insulating Brick or Shapes typical bulk density of 100 lb/ft 3 1.60 g/cm 3 or greater than 45 total porosity or both- The test specimens shall be 4½ by 4½ by 2½ or 3 in. 114 by 114 by 64 or 76 mm each taken from a different brick. It is permissible to prepare these specimens from the half-brick resulting from the modulus of rupture test see Sections 10-15. The selected compression test section shall be free of cracks chipped surfaces and other obvious defects. The test surfaces shall be approximately parallel planes. Keywords: Dimensions: 4½ x 4½ x 2½ or 3 in. Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang
  • slide 50: 5.3 Castable Refractories- The test specimens shall be 2” x 2” x 2” 51mm x 51mm x 51mm cubes or cylinders 2 in. 51 mm in diameter by 2 in. 51 mm high prepared by casting or gunning. It is permissible to prepare one specimen from each 9” x 2” x 2”. 230mm x 51mm x 51mm bar after the modulus of rupture test MOR see Sections 10-15. The selected compression test section shall be free of cracks chipped surfaces and other obvious defects. The loaded surfaces shall be approximately parallel planes. All samples must be dried at 220 to 230 °F 105 to 110 °C for 18 h overnight. Upon removal from the oven allow the sample to cool naturally until cool to the touch. Complete testing within 2 h of removal from the drying oven. See Practices C 862 and C 1054. Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang dried at 220 to 230 °F 105 to 110 °C for 18 h overnight. cool naturally until cool to the touch 2 h max Testing Cured
  • slide 51: Charlie Chong/ Fion Zhang 4.3.2 Casting Refractory cast in the mock-up shall be cured for 12 hours minimum and then stripped of forms for visual inspection only. 4.3.3 Placement of Thin Layer Erosion Resistant Refractories Hexmesh or hexalt anchoring system as the case may be shall be attached to a backing plate such that the backing plate may be removed and the applied refractory lining examined from the backside. Examination of the panel may be p
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