Subnetting

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1. Subnetting 2. Subnet  Subnets are a subset of the entire network  Networks can be divided into subnets  Each subnet is treated as a separate network  A…
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  • 1. Subnetting
  • 2. Subnet  Subnets are a subset of the entire network  Networks can be divided into subnets  Each subnet is treated as a separate network  A subnet can be a WAN or LAN
  • 3. Subnets Subnet 1 Subnet 2 Subnet 3 Subnet 4
  • 4. Sub netting o What? Sub netting is the strategy that allows creating multiple networks from a single one. o Why? Maximize addressing efficiency Extend the life of IPv4 o How? Transform host bits into network bits thus creating additional networks from single address block
  • 5. Cont… oThe default subnet mask is as follows: Class A: 255.0.0.0 Class B: 255.255.0.0 Class C: 255.255.255.0
  • 6. Sub Netting in Class C ◦ Subnetting base address 192.168.1.0/24 11111111 11111111 11111111 00000000 ◦ Transform 1 host bit into network bit 11111111 11111111 11111111 10000000 2 𝑏 networks (where b=no. host bits transformed) =2 networks 2ℎ -2 hosts/ips per new networks (where h=no. of host bits left)=126 hosts New prefix length /25 255.255.255.128 ◦ So the first network will have the network id of .0.25 ◦ And the 2nd network will have the network id of .128.25
  • 7. Cont… ◦ Transform 2 host bits into networks bit 11111111 11111111 11111111 11000000 New prefix length /26 255.255.255.192 ◦ So the first network will have the network id of .0.26 ◦ 2nd network: .64.26 ◦ 3rd network : .128.26 ◦ 4th network: .192.26 And in each network we will have maximum 62 ips.
  • 8. Subnet Masks Mask No. of hosts Host Bits 255.255.255.0 254 bits 8 255.255.255.128 126 bits 7 255.255.255.192 62 bits 6 255.255.255.224 30 bits 5 255.255.255.240 14 bits 4 255.255.255.248 6 bits 3 255.255.255.252 2 bits 2 𝑈𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑚𝑢𝑙𝑎 ∶ 2ℎ -2
  • 9. Example Subnet Base Address: 200.10.21.0/24 ◦ Objective: The network segment requires a maximum of 25 ip addresses. Subnet the base address in order to yield the maximum address utilization. ◦ Solution: 2ℎ -2 => 25 (what is the smallest value of h that meets the criteria?) h=5 b=32-(n+h) b=32-(24+5) b=3 2 𝑏 = 8 (networks) each having 30 ips ◦ New Mask: 255.255.255.224/27
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