Research on Phosphate Buffer Saline & Hanks Balanced Salt Medium

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A research conducted to check the influence of human biofield treatment on physicochemical properties of the phosphate buffer saline and hanks balanced salt medium.
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  • slide 1: American Journal of BioScience 2015 36: 267-277 Published online December 21 2015 http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/j/ajbio doi: 10.11648/j.ajbio.20150306.20 ISSN: 2330-0159 Print ISSN: 2330-0167 Online Comparative Physicochemical Evaluation of Biofield Treated Phosphate Buffer Saline and Hanks Balanced Salt Medium Mahendra Kumar Trivedi 1 Alice Branton 1 Dahryn Trivedi 1 Gopal Nayak 1 Rakesh Kumar Mishra 2 Snehasis Jana 2 1 Trivedi Global Inc. Henderson USA 2 Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt. Ltd. Bhopal Madhya Pradesh India Email address: publicationtrivedisrl.com S. Jana To cite this article: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi Alice Branton Dahryn Trivedi Gopal Nayak Rakesh Kumar Mishra Snehasis Jana. Comparative Physicochemical Evaluation of Biofield Treated Phosphate Buffer Saline and Hanks Balanced Salt Medium. American Journal of BioScience. Vol. 3 No. 6 2015 pp. 267-277. doi: 10.11648/j.ajbio.20150306.20 Abstract: Phosphate buffer saline PBS has numerous biological and pharmaceutical applications. Hank buffer salt HBS has been used as a medium for tissue culture applications. This research study was aimed to investigate the influence of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on physicochemical properties of the PBS and HBS. The study was executed in two group’s i.e. control and treated. The control group was kept aside as control and treated group had received the biofield energy treatment. The control and treated samples were further characterized by X-ray diffraction XRD differential scanning calorimetry DSC thermogravimetric analysis TGA and Fourier transform infrared FT-IR spectroscopy. The XRD analysis indicated the increase in crystallite size by 5.20 in treated PBS as compared to the control. Similarly the treated HBS also showed increase in crystallite size by 3.20 with respect to the control. Additionally the treated PBS showed an increase in Bragg’s angle 2θ as compared to the control sample. However a decrease in Bragg’s angle of XRD peaks of the treated sample was noticed in the treated HBS. The DSC analysis of the control PBS showed melting temperature at 224.84°C however melting temperature was not observed in the treated sample. However DSC analysis of the treated HBS showed an increase in melting temperature 152.83°C in comparison with the control 150.60°C. Additionally the latent heat of fusion of the treated HBS was increased substantially by 108.83 as compared to the control. The TGA thermogram of the treated PBS showed an increase in onset of thermal degradation 212°C as compared to the control 199°C. Whereas the treated HBS showed less weight loss comparing with the control sample. This indicated the increase in thermal stability of the both the treated PBS and HBS samples. The FT-IR spectroscopic analysis of treated PBS showed alterations in the frequency of the functional groups such as O-H C-H PO OP-OH and P-OH as compared to the control. Additionally the FT-IR spectrum of the treated HBS showed increase in frequency of calcium chloride phase 1444→1448 cm -1 as compared to the control sample. Altogether it was observed that biofield energy treatment had caused physical thermal and spectral changes in the treated samples as compared to the control. It is assumed that biofield energy treated PBS and HBS could be a good prospect for biological and tissue culture applications. Keywords: Phosphate Buffer Saline Hank Buffer Salt Biofield Energy Treatment X-ray Diffraction Thermal Analysis 1. Introduction Phosphate buffer saline PBS is a buffer solution commonly used in biological research. It is mainly a water-based salt solution containing sodium phosphate and sodium chloride. PBS is known to be isotonic to the biological cells hence it has many applications. It has been used in laboratory protocols for dilutions washing cell suspensions rinsing culture flaks and plates as well as additives to cell culture media 1-6. PBS is commercially available in different formulation with calcium and magnesium +/+ PBS or without –/– PBS 7. Lichtenauer et al. reported that PBS might have an influence on the human peripheral mononuclear cells under different culture conditions. They elaborated that these alterations of extracellular conditions might influence several functions such as secretion of cytokines proliferative responses and cell death 8. Moreover PBS-based buffers
  • slide 2: 268 Mahendra Kumar Trivedi et al.: Comparative Physicochemical Evaluation of Biofield Treated Phosphate Buffer Saline and Hanks Balanced Salt Medium have been used in pharmaceutical industries for assessing the drug release drug stability as well as buffer for high-performance liquid chromatography HPLC 9. Additionally PBS has also been used as a buffer in the microbial fuel cells to maintain the pH conditions and solution conductivity 10. The salt solution has been used to maintain the medium within the physiological pH range. This is also used to maintain the intracellular and extracellular osmotic balance. Hank’s balanced salt HBS solution is used in cell culture applications. It is designed for use in cells maintained with less CO 2 environment or CO 2 free environment 11. Stability of buffer solution is an important requirement for its intended uses in pharmaceutical and biological applications. It was reported that stability of buffer solution can be affected by temperature chemical light etc. 12. Thus it is envisaged that stability of buffer solutions such as PBS and HBS could be improved using some alternative methods. Recently biofield energy treatment was used as a lucrative method for physicochemical modifications of various materials. Biofield energy therapies are considered under complementary and alternative medicine CAM. These kind of therapies contains practices based on subtle energy fields and it is envisaged that human beings are permeated with a subtle form of energy 13. It is believed that biofield therapies are effective in reducing stress such as daily life stress and stress of patients receiving terminal care 14. It was reported that healing practitioners can channel the energy to the patients and confer positive results. Therefore it is suggested that human beings have the ability to harness the energy from the environment/Universe and can transmit into any object living or non-living around the Globe. The objects will always receive the energy and responding in a useful manner that is called biofield energy. Moreover biofield energy treatment that comes under the category of CAM therapies have been approved by the prestigious National Institute of Health NIH/The National Centre for Complementary and Alternative Medicine NCCAM as an alternative treatment in the healthcare sector 15. Mr. Mahendra Kumar Trivedi is a well-known healer of biofield energy who can alter the physicochemical properties of materials such as metals 16 organic compound 17 drugs 18 and polymers 19. Additionally the biofield energy treatment is also known as The Trivedi effect ® has improved the production in the field of agriculture 20 and altered the phenotypic characteristics of pathogenic microbes 21. Therefore after conceiving the above-mentioned outcomes of biofield energy treatment and properties of PBS and HBS authors have planned to investigate the impact of biofield energy on physicochemical properties of these buffers. 2. Materials and Methods Phosphate buffer saline PBS and Hank’s balanced salt HBS solution were procured from Himedia Laboratories India and the samples were divided into two parts. The one part was kept aside as a control sample while the other part was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s unique biofield energy treatment and labelled as treated sample. The treated group was in sealed pack and handed over to Mr. Trivedi for biofield energy treatment under standard laboratory conditions. Mr. Trivedi gave the energy treatment through his energy transmission process to the treated sample without touching the sample. The control and treated samples were characterized by different analytical techniques such as X-ray diffraction differential scanning calorimetry thermogravimetric analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. 2.1. X-ray Diffraction XRD XRD analysis of control and treated samples PBS and HBS were evaluated using X-ray diffractometer system Phillips Holland PW 1710 which consist of a copper anode with nickel filter. XRD system had a radiation of wavelength 1.54056 Å. The average crystallite size G was computed using formula: G kλ/bCosθ 1 Here λ is the wavelength of radiation used b is full-width half-maximum FWHM of peaks and k is the equipment constant 0.94. Percentage change in average crystallite size was calculated using following formula: Percentage change in crystallite size G t -G c /G c ×100 2 Where G c and G t are denoted as crystallite size of control and treated powder samples respectively. 2.2. Differential Scanning Calorimetry DSC The control and treated samples PBS and HBS were analyzed using Pyris-6 Perkin Elmer DSC at a heating rate of 10°C/min and the air was purged at a flow rate of 5 mL/min. The predetermined amount of sample was kept in an aluminum pan and closed with a lid. A reference sample was prepared using a blank aluminum pan. The percentage change in latent heat of fusion was calculated using following equations: Change in latent heat of fusion ∆H Treated - ∆H Control / ∆H Control × 100 3 Where ∆H Control and ∆H Treated are the latent heat of fusion of control and treated samples respectively. 2.3. Thermogravimetric Analysis-Differential Thermal Analysis TGA-DTA A Mettler Toledo simultaneous TGA and differential thermal analyzer DTA was used to investigate the thermal stability of control and treated samples PBS and HBS. The rate of heating was 5°C/min and samples were heated in the range of room temperature to 400°C under air atmosphere. 2.4. FT-IR Spectroscopy The FT-IR spectra were recorded on Shimadzu’s Fourier transform infrared spectrometer Japan with the frequency range of 4000-500 cm -1 .
  • slide 3: American Journal of BioScience 2015 36: 267-277 269 3. Results and Discussion 3.1. X-ray Diffraction X-ray diffraction studies were conducted to investigate the crystalline nature of the control and treated samples. XRD diffractogram of control and treated PBS are presented in Fig. 1. The XRD diffractogram of the control PBS showed intense crystalline peaks at Bragg’s angle 27.31º 31.62º 45.36º 45.50º 56.39º 66.16º and 75.23º. However the treated PBS showed the occurrence of intense peaks at Bragg’s angle 27.30º 31.65º 45.40º 45.54º 56.43º 66.19º and 75.26º. The result indicated an increase in Bragg’s angle at 31.62→31.65 45.36º→45.40º 45.50º→45.54º 56.39º→56.43º 66.16º→66.19º and 75.23º→75.26º in the treated sample as compared to the control. It was reported that presence of tensile stress in molecules might cause an increase in Bragg’s angle of the samples. Thus it is assumed that biofield energy treatment might cause the emergence of tensile stress in treated PBS molecules that led to increase in Bragg’s angle of the sample as compared to the control. The crystallite size was computed from XRD data of control and treated PBS and results are presented in Fig. 2. The crystallite size of the control PBS was 107.95 nm and it was increased to 113.56 nm in the treated sample. The result demonstrated 5.20 increase in crystallite size of the treated sample as compared to the control. Figure 1. XRD diffractograms of the control and treated phosphate buffer saline.
  • slide 4: 270 Mahendra Kumar Trivedi et al.: Comparative Physicochemical Evaluation of Biofield Treated Phosphate Buffer Saline and Hanks Balanced Salt Medium Figure 2. Crystallite size of the control and treated phosphate buffer saline and hanks balanced salt. XRD diffractogram of the control and treated HBS are depicted in Fig. 3. The XRD diffractogram of the control sample showed intense crystalline peaks at Bragg’s angle at 27.35º 28.33º 31.69º 31.78º 45.43º 56.46º 66.22º and 75.26º. However the treated sample showed XRD peaks at Bragg’s angle 27.31º 28.31º 31.65º 31.75º 45.41º 56.43º 66.20º and 75.27º. The result showed a decrease in Bragg’s angle of the treated sample 27.35º→27.31º 28.33º→28.31º 31.69º→31.65º 31.78º→31.75º 45.43º→45.41º 56.46º→56.43º and 66.22º→66.20º as compared to the control. Additionally a significant decrease in XRD peak intensity was also observed with respect to the control sample. Inoue and Hirasawa demonstrated an interesting relationship between crystal morphology and XRD peak intensity of gypsum CaSO 4 ·2H 2 O. They elaborated that decrease in intensity of XRD peaks might change the crystal morphology of the gypsum samples 22. Therefore it is assumed that biofield treatment may led to change in crystal morphology of the treated HBS that might led to depression in the intensity of the XRD peak as compared to the control. Figure 3. XRD diffractograms of the control and treated hank balanced salt.
  • slide 5: American Journal of BioScience 2015 36: 267-277 271 The crystallite size of the control HBS was 110.81 nm and it was increased to 114.36 nm in the treated sample. The result suggested the increase in crystallite size by 3.20 in the treated HBS with respect to the control. The crystallite size is known as a group of molecules having orientation in the same plane. Researchers have shown that modulation in crystallite size directly governs the material properties. Grzmil et al. showed that calcination along with an increase in temperature causes a considerable increase in crystallite size of the materials 23. Additionally Jacob et al. during their studies on nano ceramic materials demonstrated that different treating temperature causes an increase in crystallite size 24 25. Thus it is hypothesized that biofield treatment might provide thermal energy that led to the expansion of the crystallite size of the treated PBS and HBS salt as compared to the control. 3.2. DSC Characterization DSC is a thermal analysis technique that is used to investigate the melting temperature glass transition and latent heat of fusion of the materials. The DSC thermograms of control and treated PBS samples are presented in Fig. 4. The DSC thermogram of control PBS showed two endothermic peaks i.e. at 67.95 and 224.84°C. The first endothermic peak was due to some bound water in the sample and the second peak may be attributed to the melting of the disodium hydrogen phosphate in the sample. Whereas the treated PBS showed endothermic peak at 63.39°C that was due to bound water in the sample. However the second endothermic peak was disappeared in the treated sample that might be due to robust crystalline nature of the treated sample as compared to the control. Figure 4. DSC thermograms of control and treated phosphate buffer saline.
  • slide 6: 272 Mahendra Kumar Trivedi et al.: Comparative Physicochemical Evaluation of Biofield Treated Phosphate Buffer Saline and Hanks Balanced Salt Medium Figure 5. DSC thermograms of control and treated hank buffer salt. DSC thermogram of the control and treated HBS are presented in Fig. 5. DSC thermogram of control HBS showed an endothermic transition at 150.60°C that may be due to melting temperature of the sample. However the treated HBS showed an endothermic peak at 152.83°C attributed to melting temperature of the sample. The increase in endothermic peak might be associated with an increase in thermal stability of the treated HBS. It was previously reported that increase in melting temperature could be correlated to increase in thermal stability 26. The latent heat of fusion results were recorded from the DSC thermograms. The latent heat of fusion is regarded as heat absorbed during phase transition i.e. solid to the liquid phase of a material. The latent heat of fusion of the control sample was 9.06 J/g and it was substantially increased to 18.92 J/g in the treated HBS. The result indicated 108.83 increase in the latent heat of fusion of the treated HBS sample with respect to the control. Recently biofield energy treatment had altered the latent heat of fusion of indole compound 16. 3.3. TGA Analysis TGA analysis is a thermal technique that is used to measure the thermal decomposition weight loss volatilization and oxidation in the samples. The TGA thermograms of the control and treated PBS are presented in Fig. 6. The TGA thermogram of the control PBS showed three-steps thermal degradation pattern. The first step thermal degradation commenced at around 199°C and terminated at around 220°C. The second step thermal decomposition began at around 221°C and terminated at around 246°C. Further the third decomposition started at around 336°C and terminated at around 361°C. Contrarily the TGA thermogram of the treated
  • slide 7: American Journal of BioScience 2015 36: 267-277 273 PBS showed one-step thermal degradation pattern. The thermal degradation began at around 212°C and terminated at around 270°C. The result showed that onset of thermal degradation of the treated PBS 212 °C was higher as compared to the control 199°C. This may be attributed to increased thermal stability of the biofield energy treated PBS as compared to the control. TGA thermogram of the control and treated HBS are presented in Fig. 7. The TGA thermogram of the control sample showed commencement of thermal degradation at around 180°C and it stopped at around 260°C. However the treated sample showed thermal degradation at around 130°C and it terminated at around 237°C. The results indicated that the control and treated sample had lost 10.78 and 5.35 respectively from its initial weight during the thermal degradation process. DTG thermogram of the control and treated HBS are shown in Fig. 7. DTG thermogram of the control HBS showed maximum thermal decomposition temperature T max at 207.88. However the treated HBS showed T max at 186.31°C. The result suggested that thermal weight loss in the treated sample was less as compared to the control. This may be regarded as the high thermal stability of the treated sample with respect to the control. It was reported that crosslinking and conformational changes might induce thermal stability to gamma radiation treated polymer 27. Therefore it is assumed that biofield energy treatment might cause the crosslinking and conformational changes in the treated PBS and HBS molecules that leads to increase in thermal stability of the treated samples. Figure 6. TGA thermograms of control and treated phosphate buffer saline.
  • slide 8: 274 Mahendra Kumar Trivedi et al.: Comparative Physicochemical Evaluation of Biof
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