Protein Synthesis Transcription and Translation PPT.pdf

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12/22/2014 1 Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation Activity 16: Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation  How does a cell make proteins with…
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12/22/2014 1 Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation Activity 16: Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation  How does a cell make proteins with the information from DNA? EQ Activity 16: Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation Get Started  Think of a corn cell that is genetically modified to contain the Bt gene and a corn cell that is not modified. ◦ In what ways are the cells similar? ◦ In what ways are the cells different? Activity 16: Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation Get Started  What is the relationship between DNA and proteins in a cell? Activity 16: Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation Introduction  Protein synthesis is the process in which a cell makes a protein. It has two phases.  Transcription is the first phase, where DNA is used to make mRNA.  Translation is the second phase, where the mRNA is used to make a protein. Read the introduction. Activity 16: Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation Procedure 12/22/2014 2 Activity 16: Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation Procedure  As you view the simulation, be sure to correct the order of the Transcription and Translation cards, as needed. Activity 16: Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation Activity 16: Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation Activity 16: Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation Procedure  D, F, E, J, A, H, B, G, C, I  Tape/staple/glue the copies of the cards into your journal and follow procedure step #9. The correct card order is: Activity 16: Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation  This is a cell with DNA in its nucleus. Activity 16: Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation  The mRNA molecule leaves the nucleus and travels to a ribosome in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it will begin the translation process. 12/22/2014 3 Activity 16: Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation  tRNA molecules bind to the mRNA-ribosome complex according to the information on contained in the codons in the mRNA molecule. Specific tRNAs bind to each codon, and carry an amino acid. Activity 16: Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation  The amino acid chain continues to grow as the mRNA continues to move along the ribosome, matching the tRNA molecule and bringing new amino acids. Activity 16: Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation  Complementary RNA nucleotides match with the DNA bases. The nitrogenous base uracil replaces thymine. Activity 16: Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation Transcription Activity 16: Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation Translation Activity 16: Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation Central Dogma 12/22/2014 4 Activity 16: Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation  Codon - Set of 3 nucleotides on mRNA that codes for an amino acid  Mutations – changes in the sequence of nucleotides in the DNA. Part B: Mutations Activity 16: Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation Video – Mismatch Repair Activity 16: Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation Key Vocabulary  Insertion – add a nucleotide  Deletion – remove a nucleotide  Substitution – change a nucleotide  Three base insertion – 3 nucleotides are added or deleted. Types of Mutations Activity 16: Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation Procedure Step #10 Activity 16: Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation Codon Chart The “Codon Chart” at the right shows you how to determine which amino acid goes with which m-RNA codon sequence. To decode a codon, start with the First Base, then the Second Base, and finally the Third Base. Activity 16: Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation Codon Chart 12/22/2014 5 Activity 16: Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation Codon Chart Activity 16: Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation Activity 16: Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation Sickle Cell Anemia is caused by a substitution mutation Activity 16: Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation  Why is it possible for mutations to be neutral? Discuss and Respond in your Journal Activity 16: Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation Procedure Activity 16: Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation Follow Up  Scientists fix genes so they produce the correct protein Gene Therapy 12/22/2014 6 Activity 16: Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation Gene Therapy Restores Boy’s Sight Activity 16: Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation Hemophilia Gene Therapy Breakthrough Activity 16: Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation Follow Up  Define protein synthesis and describe how it works. Analysis 1 Activity 16: Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation Follow Up 5’ TACTCGGCATTGTGA 3’ Analysis 2 Activity 16: Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation Follow Up  Predict the results of a two-base insertion or deletion to a strand of DNA that codes for a protein. How is this different from a three-base insertion or deletion? Analysis 3 Activity 16: Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation Follow Up  One night while watching TV you hear a newscaster say, “DNA mutations cause damaged proteins.” Based on your work in Part B, how would you respond to this claim? Analysis 4 12/22/2014 7 Activity 16: Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation Follow Up  Describe the relationship between gene therapy and protein synthesis. Analysis 5 Activity 16: Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation  3 molecules in central dogma flowchart  2 processes involved in protein synthesis  1 reason why mutations may not change a protein Check In Summary Activity 16: Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation  amino acid  DNA  mRNA  mutation  protein  protein synthesis  replication  RNA  transcription  translation Key Vocabulary
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