Basic Pool & Spa Care

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Basic Pool & Spa Care Module 2: Water Balance Exceptional People. Proven Methods 2 Table of Contents MODULE 2: Water Balance…
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Basic Pool & Spa Care Module 2: Water Balance Exceptional People. Proven Methods 2 Table of Contents MODULE 2: Water Balance Objective……………………………………………………………………………. 4 Purpose…………………………………………………………………………….. 4 pH Objectives…………………………………………………………….. 5 Topic Introduction……………………………………………………. 5 Water Balance……………………………………………. 6 What is pH?………………………………………………. 6 What the Pool/Spa Owner Wants to Know About pH…… 6 The pH Chart……………………………………………… 6 Swimmer Comfort………………………………………… 6 Water Clarity……………………………………………… 7 Surface and Equipment Longevity………………………... 7 Sanitizer Efficiency………………………………………... 7 If pH is Too High (above 7.6)…………………………….. 7 If pH is Too Low (below 7.2) ……………………………. 8 Alkalinity Objective……………………………………………………………… 9 Topic Introduction……………………………………………………. 9 Buffering the Water Against Change…………………….. 10 Total Alkalinity – the pH Buffer…………………………. 10 If Total Alkalinity is Too Low…………………………… 10 If Total Alkalinity is Too High…………………………… 10 Water Hardness Objective……………………………………………………………… 11 Topic Introduction……………………………………………………. 11 Water Hardness – Water’s Favorite Minerals………….. 12 Temperature and Calcium Hardness……………………… 12 If Hardness is Too High………………………………….. 12 If Hardness is Too Low…………………………………… 13 The Saturation Index Objectives…………………………………………………………….. 14 Topic Introduction……………………………………………………. 14 The Saturation Index……………………………………… 15 Saturation Index Values for Calculation…………………. 15 Total Dissolved Solids……………………………………. 16 If Total Dissolved Solids are Too High………………….. 16 Maintaining the Proper Saturation Index………………… 16 Pool Care Key #5 – Testing Objectives …………………………………………………………… 17 Topic Introduction…………………………………………………… 17 Pool Care Key #5………………………………………… 18 Testing…………………………………………………… 18 Testing and Correcting the Water……………………….. 18 3 Home Testing Kits………………………………………… 18 BioGuard® ALEX and Accu-Scan®……………………… 19 ALEX automates the Saturation Index……………………. 19 The BioGuard Water Analysis Laboratory……………….. 20 Testing TDS and Minerals………………………………… 21 4 Module 2: Water Balance This module should take you approximately 3.5 hours to complete. Objectives ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2.0 Given a scenario, describe BioGuard® Water Balance products and their functions according to BioGuard standards. 2a Define pH. 2b Describe how pH affects comfort, clarity, equipment longevity, and chemical efficiency. 2c Identify the maintenance levels of pH. 2d Identify symptoms caused by high or low pH. 2e Define the importance of Total Alkalinity and its proper balance. 2f Define Water Hardness and its appropriate level. 2g Identify the affects of too little hardness. 2h Identify the affects of high temperatures on hardness. 2i Define the Saturation Index. 2j Identify the results of a high or low Saturation Index. 2k Define Total Dissolved Solids and their recommended level. 2l Describe how to maintain the proper Saturation Index with BioGuard® balancing products. 2m Define the importance of water testing. 2n Identify parameters for testing. 2o Identify the different methods of water testing. 2p Describe the advantages of BioGuard® ALEX. Purpose This module describes water balance and the factors used to balance water including pH, alkalinity, water hardness and saturation. BioGuard products in the category are presented as well as their functions. 5 pH This topic should take you approximately 60 minutes to complete. Objectives ! Define pH ! Describe how pH affects comfort, clarity, equipment longevity, and chemical efficiency. ! Identify maintenance levels of pH. ! Identify symptoms caused by high or low pH. Topic Introduction This topic describes: 1. Water Balance 2. What is pH? 3. What the Pool/Spa Owner Wants to Know about pH 4. The pH Chart 5. Swimmer Comfort 6. Water Clarity 7. Surface and Equipment Longevity 8. Sanitizer Efficiency 9. If pH is Too High 10. If pH is Too Low 6 Water Balance Chlorine and bromine work best in water that is properly balanced. Balanced water is also more comfortable for swimmers and safer on equipment. pH is the primary factor in balanced water. What is pH? pH is a number that characterizes the acidic or basic characteristics of a liquid substance. Expressed as a number on a scale of 0 to 14, with 7.0 being neutral; values less than 7.0 are acidic and values greater than 7.0 are basic. What the Pool / Spa Owner wants to know about pH A typical pool / spa owner only wants to know things that affect them. So what are the features of water with a proper pH? What are the benefits of these pH features? ! Swimmers are comfortable. ! Water remains clear. ! The pool/spa equipment and surface last longer and perform better. ! The sanitizers in the water work more efficiently. The pH Chart Acceptable pH range: 7.2 to 7.6 Swimmer Comfort If pH is too high or too low, the water will feel uncomfortable to swimmers. As a matter of fact, an improperly balanced pH causes most complaints of itchy or irritated skin and burning, blood-shot eyes. What chemical is typically given the rap for these water characteristics? The answer is chlorine. Now we know Comfort 7 chloramines do pose some discomfort to bathers but a pool or spa owner that performs proper maintenance minimizes this discomfort. Water Clarity Generally speaking, a high pH will promote cloudy water and a low pH will promote clear water. As a matter of fact, low pH is a huge problem because the water does not give the owner any visual clue that there is a problem. This low pH is not only affecting bather comfort, it’s also eating away at the pool and equipment. A high pH is typically handled more quickly because the water will begin to cloud. This visual clue will prompt pool/spa owners to do something because they know they have a problem. Surface and Equipment Longevity Anything the water touches can be affected by the pH. An improper pH can cause corrosion or scale formation on the pool surfaces, equipment and plumbing. Sanitizer Efficiency Of the three primary sanitizers (chlorine, bromine and biguanide), chlorine is the most vulnerable to an improperly balanced pH. Simply put, when the pH is below 7.2, the activity of chlorine increases to such an accelerated rate that the HOCl leaves the water prematurely. When the pH is above 7.6, the amount of HOCl is reduced to the point where it cannot provide adequate sanitizing opportunity to the water. Bromine (HOBr) is more tolerant of the pH, maintaining adequate sanitizing effectiveness in a pH range from 7.0 - 7.8. Biguanide (PHMB) sanitizing effectiveness is not adversely affected by pH swings one way or the other. However, the effectiveness of the sanitizer is only one of four reasons to monitor the pH. If pH is Too High … (above 7.6) Contributors to high pH include rain, plaster surfaces, algae, and some pool chemicals. The water will be cloudy and swimmers will complain of dry skin and irritated eyes. The water will have a tendency to form scale in the plumbing and on the surfaces. The available chlorine will be less effective. Lo’N Slo can be used to lower a high pH level. 8 If pH is Too Low … (below 7.2) Contributors to low pH include most rain, new vinyl liners, swimmers, and some chemicals. The water will be clear, but it will irritate skin and make eyes red. It will also corrode equipment and the HOCl will be used up quickly. Balance Pak® 200 can be used to raise low pH. 9 Alkalinity This topic should take you approximately 20 minutes to complete. Objectives ! Define the importance of Total Alkalinity and its proper level. Topic Introduction This topic describes: 1. Buffering the Water Against Change 2. Total Alkalinity – the pH Buffer 3. If Total Alkalinity is Low 4. If Total Alkalinity is High 10 Buffering the Water Against Change Chemical buffers are critical to easily manage the dynamic changes that can occur in a pool or spa. Heavy rains, heavy bather load, and routine application of chemicals will typically have an affect on the pH of the water. If the water is not buffered to prepare it for this routine and expected use, the pH can fluctuate wildly. Total Alkalinity – the pH Buffer Total Alkalinity is a measure of the ability of the water to resist pH change. With this test, we are measuring the concentration of carbonates, bicarbonates, silicates, borates and other chemical compounds that contribute to Total Alkalinity. If the Total Alkalinity of water is kept within its ideal range, it acts as a buffer against changes in pH. So if it rains heavily or a lot of people go for a swim, the Total Alkalinity absorbs the shock of pH changing events and the pH doesn’t bounce around. The ideal range for Total Alkalinity is: ALL POOLS: 125-150 ppm Since Total Alkalinity can dramatically affect the ability to keep water in balance, a Total Alkalinity test is part of every water analysis. IF TOTAL ALKALINITY IS LOW … the pH will bounce around dramatically, making it difficult to keep the water clear and comfortable. If the pH ever drops to 4.5 or below, all Total Alkalinity is destroyed. Balance Pak® 100 can be used to raise the total alkalinity level. IF TOTAL ALKALINITY IS HIGH … pH will also be high (and difficult to bring down) and you face the problems of cloudy water, dry skin, scale formation and inactive chlorine that come with having a high pH. To lower Total Alkalinity, apply Lo’ N Slo in dosages over several days. 11 Water Hardness _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ This topic should take you approximately 30 minutes to complete. Objectives ! Define Water Hardness and its appropriate level. ! Identify the affects of too little hardness. ! Identify the affects of high temperatures on water hardness. Topic Introduction This topic describes: 1. Water Hardness- Water’s Favorite Minerals 2. Temperature and Calcium Hardness 3. If Hardness is High 4. If Hardness is Low 12 Water Hardness – Water’s Favorite Minerals Remember, water is the universal solvent. Given enough time, pressure, and/or proper temperature, water will dissolve most metals or minerals into a solution. Because of this tendency, any minerals that are present in the water’s environment will ultimately end up dissolved in the water. Hardness in pool and spa water is an important water balance characteristic. Water that has too little hardness is likely to be aggressive water. This aggressive nature is defined by the water’s need to satisfy its mineral appetite. If there are not enough minerals in solution to satisfy this appetite, the water will look for a way to satisfy its mineral hunger. The surface of plaster pools and spas is the most vulnerable to this aggressive search for mineral satisfaction so depending on the pool or spa surface, the hardness level is adjusted accordingly. PLASTER and SoftSwim POOLS: 200 - 275 ppm ALL OTHER POOLS: 175 - 225 ppm Temperature and Hardness The water’s appetite for minerals changes with the temperature. ! When water is cold; the water gets “hungry,” and works more aggressively to dissolve calcium from surfaces and equipment. This results in corrosion or etching of pool surfaces. ! When water is warm, the water forces minerals out of solution and scale forms more readily. IF HARDNESS IS HIGH … the water may have a tendency to form scale on surfaces, plumbing and equipment, especially if the water temperature is high. The only way to lower Hardness is to drain some of the water and add new source water. BioGuard® Scale Inhibitor can be added to control the formation of scale, but it will not lower the Hardness level. 13 IF HARDNESS IS LOW … the water will corrode pool equipment and plumbing and etch pool surfaces. This tendency is intensified if pH and Total Alkalinity are also low. Plaster pools are particularly susceptible since the surface itself provides a ready source of calcium for hungry water. Adding Balance Pak® 300 will raise the Hardness level in a pool. 14 The Saturation Index ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ This topic should take you approximately 30 minutes to complete. Objectives ! Define the Saturation Index. ! Identify the results of a high or low saturation index. ! Define Total Dissolved Solids and their recommended level. ! Describe how to maintain the proper Saturation Index with BioGuard® balancing products Topic Introduction This topic describes: 1. The Saturation Index 2. Saturation Index Values for Calculation 3. Total Dissolved Solids 4. If Total Dissolved Solids are Too High 5. Maintaining the Proper Saturation Index
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