Basic Aspects of Skopos theorie

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Basic Aspects of Skopos theorie
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  • Basic Aspects of Skopos theorie
  • Skopos= purpose Prime principle of any translation process is the purpose of the translational action. 3 posible kinds * purpose aimed at by translator (earned $) * Communicative purpose aimed at by the target text in target situation (instruct reader) * purpose aimed at by a particular translation strategy or procedure (translate literally in order to show sth) Skopos=purpose of the target text
  • Aim= final result an agent intends to achieve by means of an action Purpose= provisional stage in the process of attaining an aim (two relative concepts) Function= what a text means or is intended to mean from the receiver’s point of view Intention= aim-oriented plan of action, from the point of view of sender who wants to achieve a certain purpose with the text. Sender and receiver from different cultures= two different angles of the intention and the function
  • Each text is produced for a given purpose and should serve this purpose. Translation enables target text to function in the situation in which it is used and with people who want to use it and precisely in the way they want it to function. Translation is done by assignment Clients need a text for a particular purpose and calls upon a translator for a translation, starting the process. Ideal case= client provides as many details as possible about purpose, receiver/addressee, time, place, occasion, medium and function. EXPLICIT TRANSLATION BRIEF
  • Translation brief It specifies type of translation needed. The initiator actually decides on the Skopos. Conventional Assignment in a particular target community at a given time, certain types of texts are normally translated by certain types of translation. Agents= sender/receiver (most important role) Text is made meaningful by its receiver and for its receiver. Different receivers (or the same at different times) find different meanings in the same linguistic material offered by the text.
  • Target text=offer of info formulated by the translator in a target culture and language about an offer of info formulated by someone else in the source culture and language. Intratextual coherence Receiver should be able to understand it, text should make sense in the communicative situation and culture. Coherent with the receiver’s situation Intertextual coherence Between source text and target text (fidelity)
  • Translation should be adequate to requirements of translation brief (Adequacy) Equivalence= adequacy to a skopos that requires target text to serve the same communicative function as the source text. Translation is functional equivalent when it is apt to fulfil the same communicative function in the culture community. Text typologies: help translator specify the approprite hierarchy of equivalence levels needed for a particular translation Skopos. Text types (dominant communicative function) Text genres (linguistic characteristcis or conventions)
  • Informative texts Main function= inform. Choice of linguistic and stylistic form is subordinate to this function. It applies to both source and target text. Translator should attempt to give a correct and complete representation of the source text contents and should be guided by the dominant norms of the target language and culture. Expressive texts Informative aspect is complemented or overrruled by aesthetic component.
  • Operative texts Content and form are subordinate to the effect the text is designed to achieve. Translation of operative texts into operative texts should be guided by the overall aim of bringing about the same reaction in the audience. (even when it may be necessary to change stylistic features of the original) Correlation between text type and translation method.
  • Functionalism in Translator training Decisive factor in translation = dominant communicative function of the source text. Translation decisions are guided by the function achieved by means of the translation. Translator-oriented model of text functions Functions: Referential, expressive, appellative (operative) and phatic
  • Referential function in translation References to objects and phenomena of the world If referent is unknown to the receiver the text function may consist in informing the reader. If referent is a set of instructions on how to use a washing machine the text function is directive. To carry out the referential function receiver must be able to coordinate the message with their model of the particular world involved. World models are determined by culture perspective and traditions Receivers in source culture may interpret referential function of a text differently.
  • Expressive function Sender’s attitude towards objects and phenomena of the world Evaluative, irony Appellative function Directed at receiver’s sensitivity or disposition to act, appellative function is designed to induce them to respond in a particular way. Receiver-oriented Phatic function Aims at establishing, maintaining or ending contact between sender/receiver. It relies on the conventionality of the linguistic, non-linguistic and paralinguistic means used in a particular situation (small talk about the weather) Texts are rarely monofunctional
  • Different communicative functions may require different translation strategies Function may be analyzed focusing on a) relationship between target text and its audience B) relationshp between target text and its corresponding source text. Translation is a kind of target-culture representation of a source-culture text. Function of the translation process is different from the function of the target text as a result of this process.
  • Documentary translation Aims at producing in the target language a kind of document of communicative interaction in which source-culture sender communicates with a source culture audience via the source-text under source-culture conditions. Intended to reproduce the words of the original by adapting syntactic structures and idiomatic use of vocabulary to the norms of the target language.
  • Instrumental Aims at producing an instrument for a new communicative interaction between source-culture sender and target-culture audience using source text as model. Text may achieve the same range of functions as an original text If source and target text have the same function= equifunctional (manual) If there is a difference = heterofunctional (Don Quijote for children) Heterofunctional if the function of the original can not be preserved as a whole or in the same hierarchy for reasons of cultural/temporal distance
  • Genre conventions Standardization of communication practices. Certain texts are used in certain situations repeatedly with more or less the same function. Conventional forms. Instruction texts like manuals, recipes are characterized by certain syntactic structures.
  • Translation problems Traditional translation lesson=bottom-up process In functional translation problems should be dealt in a top-down way. Functional translation process should start on the pragmatic level by deciding on the intended function of the translation (documentary/instrumental) Translation type determines whether text should be translated conforming to source-culture or target-culture conventions with regard to translation style.
  • If the purpose of a translation is to achieve a particular function for the target addressee, anything that obstructs the achievement of this purpose is considered a translation error. “Before piloting the ship, you need some knowledge about tides and shoals and the use of life vests.” “Translating without clear instructions is like swimming without water” Nord. Nord, C. (1997) Translating as a Purposeful Activity. Funcionalist Approches Explained. St. Jerome publishing. Manchester, UK.
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